社会民主体制走近美国?

几乎所有的世界发达国家都自认为是社会民主政体,奉行混合经济体制,由庞大的政府实行多种社会福利和保障体制,以政府行为代替市场调节进行大部分社会财富和生活物资的分配调节工作。美利坚合众国也许略有不同,真的吗?不管它过去如何,美国在不久的将来必须决定是否成为一个社会民主政体,以及在多大程度上接受社会民主体制?

过去,至少从以往种种传说来看,美国几乎没有发生过“整体下流”的情形。相反,在美国内战前,你可以从劈铁轨开始,接着迅速转战到西部地区,在前线一举获胜,最后问鼎白宫成为总统——如果你叫亚伯拉罕·林肯的话。在二战时期,你可以在工会联盟的制造企业中保全一份蓝领工作,或辛苦爬至管理机构最高层,享受良好的职业保障,相对丰厚的薪酬,以及长期稳定的职业发展生涯。

但这些传说至少一半被神化了。向西北地区进军得付出昂贵代价,隐蔽的篷车造价不菲。即使是在后二战时期,只有一小部分美国人——大多为白人男性——才能在大规模资本集约型的工会联盟制造企业,诸如GM, GE或者AT&T中获得一份收入不错且安定的工作。

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