Les Etats-Unis optent pour la discrimination commerciale

NEW YORK – Les économistes conviennent en général des avantages de l’ouverture commerciale. Mais les bénéfices de la non-discrimination commerciale ne sont pas non plus négligeables. Une politique commerciale adéquate doit donc plus s’appuyer sur une libéralisation commerciale multilatérale, comme le prévoit le cycle de Doha, que sur des accords commerciaux préférentiels (ACP), tels que les zones de libre échange (ZLE), tout en garantissant que tout retour au protectionnisme ne dégénère pas en pratiques commerciales discriminatoires.

La dernière réunion du G20 a été une déception sur le premier point. A l’insistance des Etats-Unis, une mention initiale du G20 sur une date définie pour clore le cycle de Doha a été abandonnée. A la place, retournant sans le savoir le couteau dans la plaie, le président Barack Obama a annoncé que son administration avançait sur la question d’une ZLE entre les Etats-Unis et la Corée du Sud.

Quand au deuxième point, de récents rapports consternants indiquent que le département du Commerce américain étudie comment renforcer les mesures anti-dumping, aujourd’hui généralement perçues comme étant une forme de protectionnisme discriminatoire ciblant sélectivement des nations et entreprises exportatrices florissantes. Il est également affligeant de constater qu’Obama a décidé le 13 août d’approuver un projet de loi, adopté lors d’une rare session spéciale du Sénat, qui majore les frais de traitement des visas H1(b) et L-1 de travail temporaire de manière à payer pour des dispositifs plus coûteux de protection aux frontières.

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