Amerika se přiklání k obchodní diskriminaci

NEW YORK – Ekonomové se všeobecně shodnou na výhodách otevřenosti v obchodování. Pádné jsou ale i argumenty pro nediskriminaci v obchodě. Dobrá obchodní politika by tedy neměla prosazovat preferenční obchodní dohody, jimiž se zřizují mimo jiné zóny volného obchodu, nýbrž multilaterální liberalizaci obchodu, jak tomu bylo třeba při jednáních započatých v Dauhá, a dále zajišťovat, aby se žádný ústup k protekcionismu nezvrhl v diskriminační obchodní praktiky.

Co se týče prvého úkolu, poslední schůzka G-20 v Kanadě zklamala. Na naléhání Spojených států bylo upuštěno od dřívějšího odkazu G-20 na konkrétní datum pro dokončení obchodních rozhovorů započatých v Dauhá. Namísto toho prezident Barack Obama nerozumně nasypal do rány sůl, když oznámil ochotu své administrativy dovést až k realizaci zónu volného obchodu mezi USA a Jižní Koreou.

Co se týče druhého úkolu, objevují se znepokojivé zprávy, že ministerstvo obchodu USA prověřuje způsoby jak naostřit zuby antidumpingových opatření, u nichž v současnosti panuje všeobecný souhlas, že jsou jistou formou diskriminačního protekcionismu zaměřeného selektivně na úspěšné exportní státy a firmy. Neméně znepokojivé je Obamovo rozhodnutí ze 13. srpna podepsat návrh zákona, schválený při zřídkavém mimořádném zasedání senátu, který zvyšuje poplatky za pracovní víza kategorií H1(b) a L-1, aby se pokryly vyšší výdaje za ostrahu hranic.

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