Америка перед лицом старой и новой Европы

Раздраженное замечание, сделанное в прошлом году министром обороны США Дональдом Рамсфелдом по поводу "старой и новой Европы", оказалось справедливым, но совсем в другом смысле. Он стремился подчеркнуть противоречия между европейскими странами, однако в мае в Европейский Союз вступило десять новых государств. Расширенная Европа действительно является новой Европой. Стоит ли Америке беспокоиться по этому поводу?

Спустя сорок пять лет после объявления о плане Шумана, с которого началось объединение экономик Франции и Германии, в состав ЕС входят 25 государств, а по численности населения Европейский Союз превосходит США. Восемь новых стран-членов являются бывшими коммунистическими странами, находившимися за "железным занавесом" на протяжении почти полувека. Их тяготение к ЕС является признаком привлекательности - мягкой силы - идеи европейского объединения.

Конечно, у новой Европы много проблем. Доход на душу населения в новых странах-членах в два раза меньше, чем в пятнадцати странах, к которым они присоединяются. Существуют опасения насчет наплыва дешевой рабочей силы. Однако средние темпы роста ВВП в новых странах-членах ЕС в два раза выше, чем в первоначальных, что может стать долгожданным стимулом для инертного рынка труда и вялой экономики этих стран.

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