Америка и глобальные общественные блага

Внимание Америки сегодня поглощено проблемой, которую она создала себе в Ираке, но кандидаты в президенты также начинают задаваться вопросом о том, какими принципами должна руководствоваться внешняя политика Америки после Ирака. С моей точки зрения, сосредоточившись на глобальных общественных благах, которыми могут пользоваться все, не уменьшая при этом доступа к ним для других, Америка могла бы согласовать свое положение как самой могущественной в мире державы с интересами других стран.

Конечно, истинные общественные блага встречаются редко. Большинство только частично приближаются к идеальному примеру чистого воздуха, когда никто не может быть исключен и все могут одновременно пользоваться этим благом. Решение проблемы изменения климата, наверное, является самым ярким примером общественного блага на сегодняшний день.

Если лицо, получающее наибольшую выгоду от общественного блага (как, например, США), не берет на себя ведущую роль и не выделяет на его создание непропорционально большое количество ресурсов, то оно, скорее всего, не сможет быть создано из-за сложностей в организации коллективных действий, когда речь идет о большом количестве участников и ресурсов. Тогда как такая ответственность часто позволяет другим «проехать за чужой счет», альтернативой является полное отсутствие общественного блага.

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