Amerika und globale öffentliche Güter

Amerika ist momentan aufgrund des Problems, das es sich mit dem Irak geschaffen hat, blockiert, aber die Präsidentschaftskandidaten denken bereits darüber nach, welche Prinzipien die amerikanische Außenpolitik nach dem Irak leiten sollten. Meiner Ansicht nach könnte die Konzentration auf globale öffentliche Güter – Dinge, die jeder konsumieren kann, ohne deren Verfügbarkeit für andere dadurch einzuschränken – Amerika dabei helfen, seine überlegene Macht mit den Interessen anderer zu vereinbaren.

Natürlich sind echte öffentliche Güter selten. In den meisten Fällen handelt es sich um Annäherungen an den Idealfall von sauberer Luft, von deren Verbrauch niemand ausgeschlossen werden kann und von der alle profitieren. Der Kampf gegen den Klimawandel ist wahrscheinlich das dramatischste aktuelle Beispiel.

Wenn der größte Nutznießer eines öffentlichen Gutes (wie die USA) hinsichtlich der Bereitstellung überproportionaler Ressourcen zur Versorgung mit öffentlichen Gütern keine Führungsrolle übernimmt, wird es für kleinere Nutznießer aufgrund der Schwierigkeiten bei der Organisation gemeinsamer Aktionen einer großen Zahl von Ländern schwieriger, derartige Güter zu produzieren. Obwohl diese Verantwortung zur Führung oftmals „Trittbrettfahrer“ mit sich bringt, ist die Alternative dazu, dass überhaupt niemand mehr fährt.

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