Altruism monks giving alms laos Peter Nijenhuis/Flickr

Efektivní altruismus

PRINCETON – Může lidi skutečně motivovat altruismus? Moje nová kniha Maximum dobra, které můžete vykonat rozebírá vznikající nové hnutí s názvem Efektivní altruismus, a když dávám o této knize rozhovory, překvapuje mě, jak často zmíněná otázka padá.

Proč bychom měli pochybovat o tom, že se někteří lidé chovají přinejmenším po nějaký čas altruisticky? Z evolučního hlediska můžeme snadno pochopit altruismus vůči příbuzným a jiným lidem, kteří mohou naši pomoc opětovat. Zdá se uvěřitelné, že jakmile se naše schopnost rozumového uvažování vyvinula natolik, abychom dokázali pochopit, že cizí lidé mohou trpět a těšit se ze života stejně jako my, začali se přinejmenším někteří z nás chovat vůči neznámým lidem altruisticky.

Gallupův ústav se dotazoval respondentů ve 135 zemích, zda za poslední měsíc darovali peníze na dobročinnost, pracovali dobrovolně pro nějakou organizaci nebo pomohli neznámému člověku. Výsledky, které tvoří základ takzvaného Světového indexu dárcovství 2014, naznačují, že přibližně 2,3 miliardy lidí neboli třetina světové populace udělá alespoň jeden altruistický skutek měsíčně.

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