Altruism monks giving alms laos Peter Nijenhuis/Flickr

有效利他主义

普林斯顿—人类真的可以受利他主义的驱动?我的新书《你能做的最大善事》(The Most Good You Can Do)讨论了被称为“有效利他主义”(Effective Altruism)的新出现的运动,在关于这本书的访谈中,我惊奇地发现这个问题是如此频繁地提及。

为何我们要怀疑有人至少会有时采取利他行为?从进化论的角度,我们很容易就能理解对家人和可回馈帮助的人的利他主义。一个很有道理的说法是,如果我们推理和思考的能力足够发达,可以确保我们明白陌生人可以与我们一样受苦或享受生活,那么至少我们中一部分人也会对陌生人有利他行为。

民调组织盖洛普公司(Gallup)询问了135个国家的人在过去一个月中是否为慈善组织捐过钱、为某个组织贡献义务劳动,或者帮助过某个陌生人。盖洛普调查的结果——也是2014年世界奉献指数(World Giving Index 2014)的基础——表明大约23亿人,即世界人口的三分之一,每个月至少会有一次利他行为。

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