Le calme règne-t-il au Burundi?

Comme ses voisins, le Congo et le Rwanda, le Burundi est un pays déchiré par la guerre. Ses problèmes n'ont pas attiré l'attention mondiale au cours des dernières années, sans doute parce que les rebelles du Burundi ne sont pas parvenus à toucher le fond de la sauvagerie qui s'est manifestée au Rwanda et au Congo. Mais contrairement à ses voisins, cette année risque de marquer un tournant pour le Burundi. Suite à des accords passés entre les rebelles et le gouvernement grâce à la médiation de Nelson Mandela et du vice-président sud-africain Jacob Zuma, le Burundi est désormais confronté à deux choix possibles : tourner résolument le dos aux troubles civils ou risquer un retour à la politique de la machette qui a malmené la région des Grands Lacs d'Afrique pendant une décennie.

Depuis qu'il a obtenu son indépendance d'avec la Belgique en 1962, le Burundi a connu cinq épisodes au cours d'une seule guerre civile. Environ 600 000 personnes ont été tuées et des centaines de milliers d'autres sont devenues des réfugiés.

Beaucoup dépeignent cette guerre comme la conséquence de la haine que se portent la majorité hutue et la minorité tutsie. Mais ceci n'explique pas pour autant pourquoi ces groupes se haïssent soi-disant autant l'un l'autre. L'homogénéité culturelle et linguistique du Burundi, rare en Afrique, dément la vue simpliste qui veut que les Hutus et les Tutsis se combattent en raison de leur trop grande différence.

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