Jim Goodwin/Flickr

Un puente entre sunitas y chiitas está demasiado lejos

BAGDAD – La reciente elección parlamentaria de Irak, la primera desde que las tropas estadounidenses se retiraron del país en 2011, se llevó a cabo en medio de una creciente ola de violencia que rápidamente está alcanzando los niveles experimentados durante la insurgencia de 2005-2007. ¿El nuevo gobierno puede acaso restablecer el orden y abordar los muchos y enormes desafíos que enfrenta Irak?

Los desafíos son, por cierto, de proporciones gigantescas. Las autoridades deben resolver cuestiones constitucionales fundamentales (como si Irak debería ser un estado federal o una confederación), reconstruir la sociedad civil, reformar las instituciones del Estado, volver a poner la economía en forma y terminar con el derroche y la corrupción en el sector petrolero.

Sin embargo, quizás el desafío más difícil de resolver sea el de zanjar la brecha sectaria entre los ciudadanos chiitas y sunitas del país. Estas fisuras se reflejan en otros países árabes (como Siria, Líbano, los países del Golfo y Yemen) y, cada vez más, en el mundo musulmán más amplio (incluyendo Pakistán, Malasia e Indonesia). ¿Se trata de una aberración histórica o las dos sectas más grandes del Islam están condenadas a una hostilidad mutua perpetua?

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