Road sign in Algeria

Cambio de escenario para Argelia

MADRID – Los primeros meses de 2016 traen consigo el quinto aniversario de las Primaveras Árabes y, con él, los balances que, lamentablemente, son muy desalentadores. Durante todos estos años se ha seguido con detenimiento el transcurso de las revoluciones y, en muchos de los casos, su evolución en dramáticos conflictos que permanecen sin solución. Sin embargo, hemos prestado menos atención a los países donde las revueltas se mitigaron cuando aún eran incipientes, como es el caso de Argelia. En los últimos días, su reforma constitucional y los efectos de la caída de los precios del petróleo han suscitado un mayor interés.

El 7 de febrero se aprobó una reforma constitucional que estaba prevista desde el año 2011. Entre otras modificaciones, incluye la limitación del mandato del presidente (el actual gobierna el país desde el año 1999) y el reconocimiento de algunas libertades fundamentales. Más allá de las críticas por ser insuficiente, esta reforma tiene lugar en un contexto delicado de incertidumbre política y económica, intensificadas por grandes desafíos externos.

El país se encuentra bloqueado políticamente por un supuesto consenso que paraliza la toma de decisiones. El presidente Abdelaziz Bouteflika se encuentra en un estado de salud delicado y sus apariciones públicas son muy escasas. Las próximas elecciones están previstas para el año 2019 y no está claro quién sucederá al hoy presidente que, ya en el 2014, no pudo desarrollar la campaña electoral debido a sus problemas de salud.

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