Road sign in Algeria

Algérie : dangers et espérances

MADRID – Cinq ans après le début de ce qu’on appelait alors le Printemps arabe, l’espoir qui fut la marque de ces révolutions, soldées par de longs et violents conflits, en est presque partout anéanti, et aucune solution ne semble en vue. Parmi toutes ces dissensions, la communauté internationale n’a pas accordé beaucoup d’attention à l’Algérie, où l’esprit révolutionnaire fut étouffé, mais souffle à nouveau. Aujourd’hui pourtant, le sort de l’Algérie est de retour sur les écrans radar du monde – ce n’est pas trop tôt.

Le 7 février, le parlement algérien a voté le nouveau train de réformes constitutionnelles, qui limitent notamment à deux mandats le maintien au pouvoir du président (Abdelaziz Bouteflika, dernier dirigeant historique de la guerre d’Indépendance, est à la tête de l’État depuis 1999) et reconnaissent un certain nombre de libertés fondamentales. Ces mesures, en préparation depuis 2011, ont pour but de renforcer le statut démocratique de l’Algérie, mais elles sont la cible, pour leur insuffisance, d’abondantes critiques.

On ne peut douter que ces réformes surviennent à un moment sensible, alors que l’Algérie est en proie aux incertitudes politiques et économiques. Le « consensus » censé déterminer la vie politique algérienne paralyse en fait depuis de nombreuses années les prises de décision. Malade, le président Bouteflika n’a pas été vu en public depuis plus d’un an et l’on commence à se poser des questions sur le déroulement des élections de 2019. Les efforts déployés ces trois dernières années pour restreindre le pouvoir des services de renseignement et de sécurité – en septembre, Mohamed Mediène, qui dirigeait depuis 1990 les services de renseignement à été contraint de prendre sa retraite – ne sont qu’une des sources et qu’une des manifestations de la tension politique palpable.

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