Kann Nawalny Russland retten?

MOSKAU – In seiner Einschätzung der Möglichkeit – oder eigentlich Unmöglichkeit – ob Russland jemals eine Umgestaltung westlichen Stils durchlaufen könnte, schrieb der Diplomat und Philosoph der Gegenaufklärung Joseph de Maistre im Jahr 1811: „Jedes Volk hat die Regierung, die es verdient.” Vierzehn Jahre später schien der Dekabristenaufstand – durch eine Bewegung von Dichtern und Armeeoffizieren, die Zar Nikolaus I. stürzen und eine konstitutionelle Monarchie errichten wollte – de Maistres Behauptung zu widerlegen. Doch der Aufstand wurde niedergeschlagen und die Dekabristen exekutiert oder ins Exil geschickt. Ein verurteilter Offizier erklärte in berühmten Worten: „Ihr könnt uns nicht alle hängen“.

Russlands brutales 20. Jahrhundert mit seinem Totalitarismus und den Gulags hätte den Offizier – und de Maistre – beinahe Lügen gestraft. Niemand „verdient“ so monströs regiert zu werden. Geschätzte 20 Millionen Russen verloren unter Stalins Herrschaft ihr Leben und der Rest war durch Terror gelähmt.

Das 21. Jahrhundert hat es mit den Russen besser gemeint, zumindest bisher. Doch obwohl Terror und Hunger kein Thema mehr sind, wurden viele der repressiven Taktiken der Vergangenheit unter der mittlerweile in ihr 14. Jahr gehenden Missherrschaft Wladimir Putins wiederbelebt.

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