Navalny peut-il sauver la Russie ?

MOSCOU – En 1811, évaluant la possibilité - ou plutôt l'impossibilité - d'une transformation de type occidental pour la Russie, le diplomate et philosophe contre-révolutionnaire Joseph De Maistre écrivait ces mots restés célèbres, "Un pays a les dirigeants qu'il mérite". Quatorze ans plus tard, la révolte décembriste - un mouvement de poètes et d'officiers qui voulaient renverser le tsar Nicolas Ier pour établir une monarchie constitutionnelle - paraissait démentir l'affirmation de De Maistre. Néanmoins leur révolte a échoué et les décembristes ont été exécutés ou se sont exilés. On se souvient qu'un officier condamné a déclaré, "Vous ne pouvez pas nous pendre tous".

Le brutal 20° siècle russe, avec son totalitarisme et son goulag a failli être la preuve que l'officier - et De Maistre - se sont trompés. Personne ne "mérite" d'être gouverné aussi monstrueusement. On estime à quelques 20 millions le nombre de Russes qui ont péri sous Staline, tandis que les autres restaient paralysés par la peur.

Au moins jusqu'à présent, le 21° siècle est plus clément envers les Russes. Mais si la terreur et la famine ont disparu, beaucoup des tactiques oppressives du passé ont été réinstaurées sous le triste régime de Poutine, maintenant dans sa 14° année.

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