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Жизнь в Больших данных

КЕМБРИДЖ – Большие данные получаются из цифрового следа, который мы оставляем за собой, когда используем кредитные карты, мобильные телефоны и Интернет. При аккуратном и правильном использовании эти данные дают нам возможность беспрецедентного размаха понять наше общество, а также улучшить наши методы жизни и работы. Но то, что работает в теории, может не так удачно воплотиться в реальном мире, где сложные человеческие взаимодействия не всегда могут быть охвачены даже при помощи самых сложных моделей. Большие данные требуют от нас экспериментов в больших масштабах.

Моя собственная лаборатория, например, создает веб-сайт, который, основываясь на картах Google, использует цифровой след общества, чтобы наносить на карту уровни бедности, детскую смертность, уровни преступности, изменения в ВВП и другие социальные показатели, район за районом – и все это ежедневно обновляется. Эта новая возможность позволяет зрителям увидеть, например, где правительственные инициативы работают, а где терпят провал.

Однако, хотя такие впечатляющие средства визуализации могут резко повысить уровень прозрачности и общественных знаний, они удивительно ограничены при применении к решению проблем общества. Одна из причин этого заключается в том, что такие богатые потоки данных поощряют проведение ложных корреляций.

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