Elif Ayiter/Flickr

Živá „velká data“

CAMBRIDGE – Velká data (big data) tvoří digitální stopy, jež za sebou zanecháváme při používání kreditních karet, mobilních telefonů či webů. Když se tato data obezřetně a vhodně využijí, dají nám bezprecedentní příležitost porozumět společnosti a zlepšit způsob, jímž žijeme a pracujeme. Co však funguje teoreticky, nemusí se úplně správně projevit ve skutečném světě, kde ani nejdůmyslnější modely nedokážou vždy podchytit spletité interakce lidí. Velká data vyžadují, abychom ve velkém experimentovali.

Laboratoř, již řídím, vytváří například web, založený na mapách Google, který digitálních stop společnosti využívá k mapování chudoby, dětské úmrtnosti, zločinnosti, změn HDP a dalších společenských ukazatelů, okres od okresu, obvod od obvodu – to vše s každodenní aktualizací. Tato nová vymoženost návštěvníkům umožňuje například sledovat, kde vládní snahy zabírají a kde jsou neúspěšné.

Přestože však takové působivé nástroje vizualizace mohou podstatně posílit transparentnost a informovanost veřejnosti, při využití k řešení společenských problémů jsou kupodivu omezené. Jeden důvod tkví v tom, že tak bohaté toky dat stimulují falešné korelace.

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