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El amanecer del transporte aéreo respetuoso del medio ambiente

MONTREAL – A medida que el mundo se vuelve más interconectado va creciendo la demanda de transporte aéreo; se espera que en los próximos años entren en funcionamiento más de 30.000 nuevas aeronaves. Pero para que este aumento se sostenga sin agravar el calentamiento global, debemos reducir rápidamente las emisiones de CO2 del sector aéreo, que son considerables y no están cubiertas por el acuerdo climático de París, firmado en diciembre pasado por más de 190 países.

Afortunadamente, hoy es el momento perfecto para ir deshaciendo el vínculo entre las emisiones de la aviación y el aumento del transporte aéreo. Tras décadas de negociaciones, los representantes de 191 países reunidos en Montreal esta semana para la Sesión 39 de la Organización de Aviación Civil Internacional (OACI) de las Naciones Unidas, han llegado a consenso para un acuerdo climático específico del sector aeronáutico.

El nuevo marco de la OACI apunta a un “crecimiento neutro en materia de emisiones de carbono” en la aviación internacional de 2020 en adelante, y su pieza central es la medición global de mercado (GMBM, por sus siglas en inglés) para ayudar a las aerolíneas a limitar de manera asequible sus emisiones netas a los niveles de 2020. Cuando se implemente, será el primer tope a las emisiones de carbono de una industria global que no implique un aumento evidente de los costes para los consumidores. Y las aerolíneas comprarán reducciones de emisiones a otros sectores económicos, canalizando de esta manera miles de millones de dólares hacia el desarrollo con bajas emisiones de carbono en todo el mundo.

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