Andrew Xu/Getty Images

Der Beginn des klimafreundlichen Flugverkehrs

MONTREAL – Während sich die Welt immer stärker miteinander verbindet, wächst die Nachfrage nach Flugreisen, und es wird erwartet, dass sich in den nächsten paar Jahren über 30.000 neue große Flugzeuge in die Lüfte erheben. Wenn wir aber nicht wollen, dass der wachsende Flugverkehr die globale Erwärmung verschärft, müssen wir schnell die erheblichen damit verbundenen CO2-Emissionen verringern, die nicht im Pariser Klimaabkommen berücksichtigt sind, auf das sich im letzten Dezember über 190 Länder geeinigt haben.

Glücklicherweise ist jetzt die perfekte Zeit, um die Flugemissionen vom Wachstum des Flugverkehrs abzukoppeln. Vertreter von 191 Ländern trafen sich in dieser Woche zur 39. Sitzung der Internationalen Organisation für zivile Luftfahrt der Vereinten Nationen (ICAO) in Montreal, und nach Jahrzehnten des Gerangels konnten sie sich auf ein luftverkehrsspezifisches Klimaabkommen einigen.

Ziel des neuen ICAO-Rahmenwerks ist ein „kohlenstoffneutrales Wachstum“ im internationalen Luftverkehr ab 2020. In seinem Mittelpunkt steht eine globale marktbasierte Messgröße (GMBM), die dazu beitragen soll, dass die Fluggesellschaften ihre Nettoemissionen auf finanziell tragbare Weise auf dem Niveau von 2020 einfrieren können. Nach ihrer Einführung wird dies die erste kohlenstoffbezogene Emissionsobergrenze eines weltweiten Wirtschaftszweigs sein, die die Kosten für die Kunden nicht merklich erhöht. Fluggesellschaften werden Emissionsreduktionen von anderen Wirtschaftssektoren erwerben und so Milliarden von Dollar in die Entwicklung kohlenstoffarmer Technologien in aller Welt leiten.

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