Andrew Xu/Getty Images

L’aube du transport aérien écologique

MONTRÉAL – Alors que le monde devient de plus en plus interconnecté, la demande de transport aérien est en croissance ; ainsi, plus de 30.000 nouveaux avions gros porteurs devraient prendre le ciel au cours des quelques prochaines années. Or, si nous voulons soutenir la croissance du transport aérien sans aggraver le réchauffement climatique, nous devons rapidement réduire les émissions de CO2 liées à l’aviation, qui sont importantes et ne sont pas couvertes par l'accord sur le climat de Paris qui a été signé par plus de 190 pays en décembre dernier.

Heureusement, c’est maintenant le moment idéal pour découpler émissions de l'aviation et croissance du transport aérien. Des représentants de 191 pays se sont réunis à Montréal cette semaine pour la 39e session de l'Organisation de l'aviation civile internationale (OACI) des Nations Unies; après des décennies de querelles, ils ont convenu d'un accord sur le climat spécifique à l'aviation.

Le nouveau programme de l’OACI vise une « croissance neutre en carbone » dans l’aviation internationale à partir de 2020. Son élément central est une mesure globale fondée sur le marché (GMBM) pour aider les compagnies aériennes à limiter de manière abordable leurs émissions nettes d’ici 2020. Lorsque la GMBM sera d’application, elle sera la première limitation d’émissions de carbone mise en œuvre dans une industrie mondiale, sans augmentation importante des coûts pour les consommateurs. De plus, les compagnies aériennes achèteront des réductions d'émissions provenant d'autres secteurs économiques, canalisant ainsi des milliards de dollars vers le développement à faibles émissions de carbone dans le monde entier.

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