The forbidden city mclcbooks/Flickr

La BAII et la gouvernance mondiale

HONG KONG – Malgré l'opposition officielle de l'Amérique et du Japon, 57 pays ont choisi de participer à la fondation de la Banque asiatique d'investissement pour les infrastructures (BAII) créée à l'initiative de la Chine. En dépit de ce que croient ses détracteurs, la création de cette institution, un véritable événement, ne peut qu'être bénéfique à la gouvernance de l'économie mondiale.

Selon l'ancien secrétaire d'Etat au Trésor américain, Larry Summers, on se souviendra peut-être du moment là comme de celui où les USA ont perdu leur rôle de garant du systéme économique mondial. Par contre, le président de la Banque asiatique de développement, Takehiko Nakao, même  s'il concède que l'on peut interpréter l'émergence de cette nouvelle institution de différentes manières,  ne croit pas à un "changement majeur dans le monde de la finance du développement".

En fait, l'avenir dépendra essentiellement de la structure de fonctionnement de la BAII dont décideront ses principaux actionnaires. Jusqu'à présent, la BAII ne remet pas en question le principe selon lequel le premier pourvoyeur de fonds d'une organisation multilatérale a une voix prépondérante dans son fonctionnement. A l'image des USA au sein de la Banque mondiale  ou de l'Europe au sein du FMI, la Chine aura une voix prépondérante au sein de la BAII.

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