L’aide internationale donne des résultats

NEW YORK – Les détracteurs de l’aide internationale se trompent. Des masses croissantes de données prouvent que le taux de mortalité chute nettement dans plusieurs pays pauvres, et que les programmes de santé financés par l’aide extérieure ont joué un rôle de premier plan. L’aide internationale remplit sa mission : elle sauve des vies.

L’une des études les plus récentes, menée par Gabriel Demonbynes et Sofia Trommlerova, a montré que la mortalité infantile (le décès d’enfants âgés de moins d’un an), a fortement baissé ces dernières années et attribue une bonne partie de cette amélioration à l’utilisation de moustiquaires de lit contre le paludisme. Ces données corroborent une étude importante sur le taux de mortalité lié au paludisme, réalisée par Chris Murray et d’autres auteurs, qui a également constaté un déclin considérable et rapide des décès dus au paludisme après 2004 en Afrique subsaharienne grâce à des mesures de contrôle du paludisme financées par l’aide internationale.

Remontons douze ans en arrière. En l’an 2000, l’Afrique était en proie à trois épidémies majeures. Le sida tuait plus de deux millions de personnes chaque année et progressait rapidement. Le paludisme gagnait du terrain, à cause de la résistance croissante du parasite aux médicaments de l’époque. La tuberculose s’étendait également, en partie à cause de l’épidémie de sida et en partie à cause de l’émergence de souches résistantes aux traitements. Par ailleurs, des centaines de milliers de femmes mourraient en couches chaque année, n’ayant ni accès à des cliniques ou hôpitaux, ni aux soins d’urgence si nécessaire.

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