Valery Matytsin/TASS/Getty Images

使用农业科技的权利

斯坦福—20世纪50年代,生物学家保罗·欧利希(Paul Ehrlich)预测人口迅速膨胀将带来大面积饥饿,与此同时,植物育种家诺曼·伯洛格(Norman Borlaug)正在开发新作物和新的农业作业方式,日后它们将成为绿色革命的中流砥柱。这些进步,再加上其他农业科技创新,被认为是让十亿人免于饿死、改善数十亿今天活在世上的人的营养状况的功臣。但一些人似乎急切地想要倒行逆施。

除了拯救生命,绿色革命也让环境免遭大规模破坏。据斯坦福大学的研究,自1961年以来,现代农业科技大幅降低了绿色气体排放,即使它同时提高了作物净收成。它还拯救了相当于三个亚马逊热带雨林的森林——或美国连在一体的48个州的面积的两倍——免于毁林开荒。自1996年以来,转基因作物让破坏环境的杀虫剂累计用量减少了5.81亿公斤,或18.5%。

令人奇怪的是,许多环保主义者更喜欢谴责而不是支持这些发展,反而宣传要回归低效低收成的方法。他们所鼓吹的所谓的生态农业无非是原始的“农夫农业”,它将降低收成、减弱庄稼的抵抗力,从而破坏粮食安全,导致贫困和营养不良多发。

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