Barley sprayed with pesticide Christopher Pillitz/Getty Images

Como Alimentar o Mundo

PRAGA – A fome tem assolado a humanidade desde tempos imemoriais. Quase todas as grandes sociedades foram moldadas pela fome. Uma estimativa sugere que quase todos os anos entre 108 a.C. e 1911 a China foi afectada por períodos de seca ou de fome causada por inundações em pelo menos uma província. No entanto, a luta contra a fome é uma batalha que a humanidade poderá finalmente vencer.

No último quartel do século XX, a produção anual de cereais foi superior à de qualquer período anterior. Além disso, serão colhidos mais cereais este ano do que em qualquer outro período da História. Desde 1992, o número de pessoas com fome em todo o mundo sofreu uma redução superior a 200 milhões, ainda que se tenha verificado um aumento demográfico de quase dois mil milhões.

Contudo, persistem desafios consideráveis. A alimentação nutritiva e economicamente acessível é uma das principais prioridades das pessoas a nível mundial. Além disso, uma em cada nove pessoas ainda não têm acesso a alimentos suficientes para se manterem saudáveis. De acordo com a presente previsão de que a actual população de 7,3 mil milhões aumente para 8,5 mil milhões em 2030 e 9,7 mil milhões em 2050, a procura de alimentos aumentará proporcionalmente. A par de mais bocas para alimentar, as tensões no que se refere à oferta de alimentos incluirão conflitos, volatilidade económica, fenómenos meteorológicos extremos e alterações climáticas.

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