Barley sprayed with pesticide Christopher Pillitz/Getty Images

Jak nasytit svět

PRAHA – Hlad je už od nepaměti pohromou lidstva. Hladomory ovlivnily budoucí podobu téměř všech velkých společností; podle jednoho odhadu trpěla Čína v důsledku sucha či záplav nejméně v jedné provincii hladomorem téměř každoročně od roku 108 před naším letopočtem až do roku 1911. Boj proti hladu je však bitvou, v níž může lidstvo nakonec zvítězit.

V poslední čtvrtině dvacátého století se každoročně vyprodukovalo víc obilnin než v kterémkoliv předcházejícím období a letos se sklidí víc obilí než v kterémkoliv jiném roce v dějinách. Od roku 1992 se počet hladovějících lidí na světě snížil o více než 200 milionů, přestože obyvatel o téměř dvě miliardy přibylo.

Obrovské problémy však přetrvávají. Dostupné a výživné potraviny představují všude na světě jednu z hlavních priorit občanů a každý devátý člověk dodnes nemá takový přísun potravin, aby byl zdravý. A vzhledem k tomu, že se očekává růst počtu obyvatel z dnešních 7,3 miliardy na 8,5 miliardy do roku 2030 a 9,7 miliardy v roce 2050, bude se i poptávka po potravinách odpovídajícím způsobem zvyšovat. A s rostoucím počtem „hladových krků“ poroste tlak na dodávky potravin, který bude vyvolávat konflikty, ekonomickou rozkolísanost, extrémní meteorologické jevy a klimatické změny.

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