Pro-Europe supporters in front of UK supreme court Leon Neal/Getty Images

عصر عدم اليقين المفرط

برلين - بحلول عام 2017 ستكون قد مرت 40 سنة على نشر كتاب جون كينيث غالبريث بعنوان "عصر عدم اليقين". أربعون عاما هي فترة طويلة، لكن الأمر يستحق الرجوع إلى الوراء لنُذكر أنفسنا كم من أشياء كان غالبريث وكثير من قرائه غير متأكدين منها.

في عام 1977، كما كتب غالبريث، كان العالم لا يزال يعاني من آثار أول صدمة أسعار النفط لمنظمة أوبك، وتساءل عما إذا كان أمر آخر سيظهر في الأفق). كانت الولايات المتحدة تواجه تباطؤ النمو وسرعة التضخم، أو الركود التضخمي، وكانت مشكلة جديدة أثارت تساؤلات حول كفاءة واضعي السياسات وكفاية النماذج الاقتصادية. وفي الوقت نفسه، كانت الجهود المبذولة لإعادة بناء النظام النقدي الدولي "بريتون وودز"، التي انهارت، تلقي بظلالها على آفاق التجارة الدولية والنمو الاقتصادي العالمي.

لكل هذه الأسباب، بدا العصر الذهبي للاستقرار الذي كان يسود خلال الربع الثالث من القرن العشرين وكأنه وصل فجأة إلى نهايته، على أن تخلفه فترة من عدم اليقين إلى حد كبير فيما بعد.

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