追逐理想之地

伦敦——去年春天,在阿拉伯起义愈演愈烈之际,许多欧洲人被大批移民将涌入欧洲的可怕远景困扰。事实并非如此,但是这种恐惧感催生了强烈的反移民民粹主义,这掩盖了一种重要的新趋势:移民欧洲和美国基本上停滞了。对于许多国家而言,移民国外的人要比入境的移民要多,这主要是因为经济危机导致西方的就业岗位减少。

这种倒退的情况是2011年(以及2011年之前的两年)报道严重不足的地方之一,各项数据令人吃惊。拿西班牙来说,到2020年,其居民将减少50多万。相比之下,2002年至2008年期间,西班牙的人口每年增长70万,这主要得益于移民。欧洲其他国家的趋势也大同小异。

尽管这一事实无法让移民的反对者守住嘴巴,但是它让各国有了更多的余地,修复和加固严重受损的制度,以便接受新移民并让他们融入本国。尽管快速老龄化的西方国家无法吸引其所需的移民,但是它们还让数百万已经移居于此的移民遭受歧视和虐待。有时在极其恶劣的环境下扣押和驱逐出境。与此同时,国际社会都没有保护大量易受伤害的移民群体,比如因最近北非冲突陷入困境的数百万人。

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