Tras los objetivos de desarrollo del milenio

CAMBRIDGE – En 2000, 189 países adoptaron colectivamente la Declaración del Milenio de las Naciones Unidas, más tarde elaborada en la forma de un conjunto de propósitos concretos llamados Objetivos de Desarrollo del Milenio (ODM). Se espera que para fines de 2015 se puedan cumplir estos ambiciosos propósitos, que incluyen, por ejemplo: reducir la pobreza extrema a la mitad y la mortalidad materna en tres cuartas partes; que todos los niños terminen la escuela primaria; detener (y comenzar a revertir) la propagación del VIH/SIDA. La fecha límite se acerca, y los expertos ya se están haciendo otra pregunta: ¿qué hacer a continuación?

Aunque es casi seguro que al terminar 2015 muchos de los ODM no se habrán alcanzado, en algunas áreas hubo avances espectaculares. Por ejemplo, es probable que la meta de reducir a la mitad la pobreza extrema (medida por la cantidad de personas que viven con menos de 1,25 dólares al día) se alcance antes de lo planeado, en gran medida gracias al fabuloso crecimiento de China.

No hay todavía elementos de prueba suficientes para determinar el papel que tuvieron los ODM en el logro de estos avances. Por ejemplo, China ya había comenzado a implementar las políticas que dieron forma al mayor programa de erradicación de la pobreza de la historia antes, e independientemente, de que se formularan la Declaración del Milenio y los ODM.

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