Nach den Millennium-Entwicklungszielen

CAMBRIDGE – Im Jahr 2000 beschlossen 189 Länder gemeinsam die Milleniumserklärung der Vereinten Nationen, aus denen eine Reihe konkreter Ziele hervorging, die Millenium-Entwicklungsziele (Millenium Development Goals, MDG). Diese ehrgeizigen Ziele – von der Halbierung extremer Armut und der Reduzierung der Müttersterblichkeit um drei Viertel bis hin zu allgemeiner Grundschulausbildung sowie dem Stopp und Rückgang der Verbreitung von HIV/AIDS – sollen bis Ende 2015 erreicht werden. Während dieser Termin immer mehr in Sichtweite rückt, diskutieren Entwicklungsexperten eine neue Frage: Was kommt als Nächstes?

So gut wie sicher ist, dass viele der MDGs bis Ende 2015 nicht erreicht werden, aber in einigen Bereichen gab es erstaunliche Fortschritte. Das Ziel beispielsweise, extreme Armut zu halbieren (die Anzahl der Menschen, die mit weniger als 1,25 US-Dollar pro Tag auskommen müssen), wird wahrscheinlich schon vorher erreicht werden, was Chinas phänomenalem Wachstum zu verdanken ist.

Gleichzeitig gibt es kaum Anzeichen dafür, dass diese Erfolge den MDGs selbst zuzuschreiben sind. Die chinesischen Maßnahmen, die zum größtem Armutsvernichtungsprogramm der Geschichte führten, sind unabhängig von der Milleniumserklärung und stammen bereits aus der Zeit davor.

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