Après la mort de l'utopie

Dix ans plus tôt, on parlait de la fin de l'histoire pour signifier l'ultime triomphe de l'avènement politique du capitalisme libéral. Aujourd'hui, nombreux sont ceux qui se moquent de cette notion perçue comme bien trop simpliste. Néanmoins, nous assistons aujourd'hui à la fin et au commencement de quelque chose de remarquable.

Dans le sillage de la mort des certitudes utopiques, et souvent sanglantes, des 19ème et 20ème siècles (l'effondrement du communisme n'étant que le dernier événement spectaculaire en date), et avec une foi qui se perd dans l'aide sociale de l'État libéral, les perceptions traditionnelles sur le travail, la retraite, l'éducation, l'Église, la solidarité et d'autres institutions sociales évoluent rapidement. Le moteur central de tous ces événements est l'accélération énorme du rythme prioritaire de l'évolution technologique et économique. Appelons ça la modernisation à avance rapide.

Bien sûr, le crash mondial des actions de produits de haute technologie en 2000 a refroidi la médiatisation à outrance de la " nouvelle économie " qui semblait émerger à la " fin de l'histoire ". Mais la chute du prix des actions ne doit pas nous aveugler face au fait que par-delà la révolution de l'information continue, trois nouvelles vagues de technologies révolutionnaires sont sur le point de frapper : les bio-technologies (dont les nouvelles technologies médicales et l'ingénierie génétique, telles que la création d'embryons humains par clonage), la nanotechnologie et la robotique. Chaque domaine représente sa propre révolution industrielle et affectera profondément nos vie et nos modes de pensée.

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