Pax Americana – und dann?

NEW YORK: Es wird heute gerne suggeriert, dass, wenn sich der Staub der globalen Finanzkrise erst einmal gelegt hat, klar werden könnte, dass die von den USA bestimmte Nachkriegswelt zu Ende gegangen ist. In diesem Fall könnte das weltweite System, das in den letzten sechs Jahrzehnte für Frieden, Sicherheit, Offenheit und wirtschaftliches Wachstum gesorgt hat, ernsthaft gefährdet sein.

Inspiriert von der amerikanischen Führung seit Ende des Zweiten Weltkriegs, erreichten zunächst Europa, dann Japan und schließlich große Teile Asiens und der Welt insgesamt ein neues Maß an Wohlstand. Die Weltwirtschaft globalisierte sich auf der Basis internationaler Institutionen, Normen und Standards, und an amerikanischen Universitäten ausgebildete ausländische Studenten kehrten mit neuen Ideen über freie Märkte, Unternehmertum und Demokratie in ihre Länder zurück. Der Schutzschirm des US-Militärs verhalf großen Teilen der Welt zu einem Urlaub vom Krieg und erleichterte es ihnen, sich auf wirtschaftliches Wachstum und regionale Integration zu konzentrieren.

Amerika übernahm nicht nur die Führungsrolle beim Aufbau der Institutionen einer sich globalisierenden Welt – UNO, Weltbank, IWF und NATO –, sondern entwickelte sich auch zu einem Modell, an dem sich viele andere Länder orientierten.

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