Co přijde po „pax Americana“?

NEW YORK – Stalo se oblíbenou praxí naznačovat, že jakmile se za globální finanční krizí usadí prach, možná vyjde najevo, že poválečné uspořádání světa, v jehož čele stály Spojené státy, dospělo ke konci. V takovém případě může být vážně ohrožen globální systém, který po více než šedesát let zajišťoval mír, bezpečnost, otevřenost a hospodářský růst.

Evropa, po ní Japonsko a nakonec i velká část Asie a ostatního světa se nechaly inspirovat vedoucí rolí Spojených států po druhé světové válce a povznesly svět na novou úroveň prosperity; světová ekonomika se globalizovala na základech mezinárodních institucí, norem a standardů a zahraniční studenti, kteří získali vzdělání na amerických univerzitách, se vrátili domů s novými nápady o volných trzích, podnikatelském duchu a demokracii. Vojenský ochranný deštník USA poskytl velké části světa oddech od války, takže se mohly snáze soustředit na hospodářský růst a regionální integraci.

Nejenže se Amerika ujala vedoucí role při budování institucí globalizujícího se světa – Organizace spojených národů, Světové banky, MMF, NATO –, ale stala se také vzorem, v němž řada dalších zemí hledala inspiraci.

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