Le Néolibéralisme, et puis après ?

Vingt ans de politiques économiques néolibérales n'ont apporté que des résultats décevants pour les pays en voie de développement. L'Amérique latine, la région ayant le plus essayé de mettre en place les recettes du « consensus de Washington » (marché libre, dérégulation des prix, privatisation), a fait l'expérience d'une croissance faible et volatile creusant le fossé des inégalités. Parmi les anciennes économies socialistes d'Europe de l'est et de l'Union Soviétique, peu sont parvenues aux niveaux de production réels atteints avant 1990. En Afrique sub-saharienne, la plupart des économies ne sont pas parvenues à faire face aux programmes d'ajustement exigés par le FMI et la Banque mondiale.

Les rares exemples de réussite se sont produits dans des pays qui ont suivi leur propre rythme et qui ne représentent pas vraiment une image d'Épinal du néolibéralisme. La Chine, le Viêt-Nam et l'Inde : tous trois ont désobéi pratiquement à toutes les règles du manuel du parfait néolibéral, même quand ils se sont lancés dans une voie plus axée vers les marchés.

Il est temps aujourd'hui de laisser tomber le néolibéralisme et le consensus de Washington. Reste à relever le défi d'une alternative, d'un ensemble de politiques visant à promouvoir le développement sans tomber dans le piège d'un nouveau plan impraticable soi-disant prévu pour le bien-être de tous les pays sans distinction.

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