Neoliberalismus neuspěl - co teď?

Dvacet let pokusů aplikovat na rozvojový svět neoliberální ekonomickou politiku přineslo silně neuspokojivé výsledky. Latinská Amerika, region, který se recepty tzv. "washingtonského konsensu" - volný obchod, cenová deregulace a privatizace - snažil aplikovat nejpilněji, dospěl k pomalému a nestabilnímu růstu s prohlubující se sociální nerovností. Z bývalých socialistických ekonomik východní Evropy a Sovětského svazu se jen pár vrátilo na úroveň produkce z doby před rokem 1990. V subsaharské Africe pak většina ekonomik nebyla s to adekvátně zareagovat na adaptační programy prosazované Mezinárodním měnovým fondem a Světovou bankou.

Těch několik málo případů úspěchu se událo v zemích, které pochodovaly podle svých vlastních bubnů - a které lze jen stěží nazvat modelovými potomky neoliberalismu. Čína, Vietnam, Indie: všechny tři země porušily snad všechna pravidla neoliberální filozofie, přestože se vydaly na tržně orientovanou cestu.

Je čas nechat za zády neoliberalismus i washingtonský konsensus. Výzvou dneška je totiž nalézt alternativní soubor politických pravidel na podporu rozvoje bez toho, aby se země stávaly obětí dalších nepraktických projektů, které jsou údajně správné za všech okolností a pro všechny země.

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