Nach der Diktatur

Der Krieg im Irak hatte kaum begonnen, als sich die Aufmerksamkeit derjenigen, die sich die Invasion ausdacht hatten, dem zuwandte, was nach dem Sieg über das Regime Saddam Husseins - einen Sieg, den jeder für unabwendbar hält - geschehen solle. Politiker und Experten haben dabei unabänderlich Vergleiche zu jüngsten Beispielen, wie Afghanistan, Sierra Leone und Ost Timor, aber auch zu entfernter liegenden und grundlegenderen Fällen bemüht.

Schließlich erwartet man im Irak den Sturz einer stark ideologisierten Diktatur. Können wir irgendetwas aus den jüngsten Beispielen dieser Art, etwa aus dem Zusammenbruch des Kommunismus in Osteuropa im Jahr 1989 oder dem Ende des Dritten Reichs in Deutschland 1945 und den sich daran anschließenden ,,Entnazifizierungsverfahren" lernen?

Die Risiken solcher Vergleiche sind zu offensichtlich, um darüber Worte zu verlieren. Jeder Fall hat seine eigenen, ganz besonderen Merkmale. Im Hinblick auf den Untergang des Kommunismus haben - sagen wir - Polen und Rumänien ganz unterschiedliche Erfahrungen gemacht. Wenn wir noch tiefer greifende kulturelle Grenzen überschreiten, werden Vergleiche sogar noch belangloser. Dennoch gibt es beim Zerfall ideologisierter Diktaturen ein paar Bereiche, die mit einander übereinstimmen.

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