ما بعد الاستيعاب

هجرة البشر مسألة قديمة قِدَم التاريخ. وحتى الهجرة إلى المناطق البعيدة والحضارات النائية ليست بالأمر الجديد. ففي غضون القرن التاسع عشر، سعى الملايين من الأوروبيين إلى الأميركيتين طلباً للحرية والرخاء، وفي الولايات المتحدة على نحو خاص. الجديد في الأمر اليوم هو حجم هذه الهجرات، التي غالباً ما تكون عبر فوارق ثقافية هائلة ـ وكثيراً ما تكون بدون هدف محدد.

والأفارقة الذين يركبون البحر الأبيض المتوسط طلباً للهجرة كثيراً ما ينقصهم حتى اليقين بشأن ما إذا كانوا يرغبون في الذهاب إلى إيطاليا، أو ألمانيا، أو بريطانيا. وحتى أولئك الذين يدركون هدفهم من الهجرة، مثل أهل شمال أفريقيا في أسبانيا وفرنسا، أو الأتراك في ألمانيا، فقد كان الهروب من الوضع البائس الميئوس منه لبلدانهم على رأس أولوياتهم وليس الوصول إلى غاية محددة.

هذا النمط الجديد من الهجرة يُفْرِز عدداً هائلاً من المشاكل بالنسبة للدول التي تستقبل المهاجرين. وربما تُمَثِل مسألة الهجرة أخطر القضايا الاجتماعية في أوروبا اليوم، وهذا لأن لا أحد هناك يدرك بصورة واضحة كيف ينبغي أن يكون التعامل مع صدام الحضارات الناتج عن الهجرة.

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