Africa's youth Christian Science Monitor/Getty Images

利用非洲的年轻人红利

多伦多—2016年,南非大学生纷纷走上街头,这是“必须降学费”运动的一部分。当时,“课程的去殖民地化”是这场运动的核心诉求之一。这场运动也是南非的一个历史转折点,年轻人开始站起来要求高品质的普及教育。但这场关于学费和课程的争论遗漏了一个关键问题:更高的教育程度如何让非洲青年赢得力量,推动非洲经济转型?

对非洲来说,学生受到教育已经不是“是否”的问题,而是学到“什么”的问题。不幸的是,尽管教育普及在近几十年来有了重大改善,但学校课程并没有较之殖民地时代有多少变化。在殖民地时代,中等教育是一种精英特权,是专为一小撮人的职业生涯而设计的。技术和在职教育和培训(TVET)也因为不受重视而蒙受损失。如今,这些项目课程陈旧,学习方法呆板,无法让年轻人适应二十一世纪就业市场的需求。

问题不仅在于课程的传统内容,如数学、科学和语言上,也在于缺乏重要的“软”技能,如沟通、团队合作和解决问题。尽管这些技能不受重视,但它们能让年轻人成为适应能力卓著的终身学习者。掌握软技能与学业、工作和生活结果的改善之间存在相关性。但是,直到最近,软技能的训练仍然没有纳入非洲的正规教育体系中。

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