plant Thomas Trutschel | getty images

Menjamin Keberlanjutan Pertumbuhan di Afrika

LAGOS – Pertumbuhan di Afrika terancam melemah. Setelah bertahun-tahun benua ini memperoleh rata-rata pertumbuhan ekonomi tahunan sebanyak 5%, ketidakpastian global, merosotnya harga komoditas, dan kondisi eksternal yang sulit mulai mengancam kemajuan selama beberapa dekade yang sangat dibutuhkan di Afrika. Menjamin kesejahteraan dan penghidupan penduduk di benua tidak mudah tapi banyak tindakan yang bisa diambil pembuat kebijakan untuk memulihkan pembangunan di Afrika.

Pertama dan terpenting, pembuat kebijakan harus menjamin adanya dana yang diperlukan untuk pembangunan berkelanjutan di tengah situasi global yang tidak menentu. Bank Dunia memperkirakan Afrika membutuhkan setidaknya $93 miliar per tahun untuk membiayai kebutuhan infrastrukturnya saja. Infrastruktur ramah iklim dan berkelanjutan memerlukan biaya lebih besar. Selama pertumbuhan global masih lemah, penduduk Afrika tidak bisa tergantung pada negara-negara maju untuk sepenuhnya memenuhi komitmen mereka dalam membantu Afrika mewujudkan Tujuan Pembangunan Berkelanjutan (SDGs).

Afrika harus segera mengembangkan sumber dayanya sendiri, dimulai dengan melipatgandakan pendapatan dari pajak. Di Afrika Sub-Sahara, pendapatan yang berasal dari pajak hanya menyumbangkan kurang dari seperlima PDB, dibandingkan di negara-negara OECD yang rasionya sepertiga PDB. Hal ini berarti banyak ruang perbaikan. Sejak tahun 1990 hingga 2004, misalnya, Ghana mengubah sistem pajak dan menambah pendapatan dari 11% menjadi 22% PDB-nya. Tentu keberhasilan ini tidak mudah; di Nigeria kami melihat adanya peluang meningkatkan penerimaan pajak non-minyak namun ini sulit diraih.

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