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Garantir l’essor de l’Afrique

LAGOS – L’essor de l’Afrique risque de s’essouffler. Après des années de croissance de l’économie du continent de 5 % en moyenne, les aléas des marchés mondiaux, les cours anémiques des produits de base et les conditions extérieures capricieuses risquent de compromettre des décennies de progrès plus que nécessaires. Il sera difficile d’assurer la prospérité et le bien-être de ceux qui vivent sur ce continent ; mais les décideurs publics ont un rôle crucial à jouer pour remettre l’Afrique sur une trajectoire montante.

Avant tout, les responsables des politiques doivent assurer le financement nécessaire à la poursuite de projets de développement durable dans le cadre d’un environnement mondial incertain. La Banque mondiale estime que l’Afrique aura besoin d’au moins 93 milliards $ par an pour financer seulement ses besoins en infrastructures. Des infrastructures qui s’inscrivent dans la lutte aux changements climatiques et dans les principes de développement durable coûteront encore plus. Or, tant que la croissance mondiale demeure anémique, les Africains ne peuvent compter sur les pays développés pour honorer tous leurs engagements d’atteindre les Objectifs de développement durable.

L’Afrique doit rapidement développer ses propres ressources, en commençant par doubler ses recettes fiscales. Dans toute l’Afrique subsaharienne, les recettes fiscales comptent pour moins qu’un cinquième du PIB, par rapport à plus d’un tiers dans les pays de l’OCDE. Il reste donc une grande marge de manœuvre pour améliorer les choses. De 1990 à 2004, par exemple, l’État du Ghana a réformé son régime fiscal et a fait passer ses recettes de 11 à 22 % du PIB. Bien entendu, ces progrès sont difficiles à atteindre ; au Nigeria, malgré un contexte favorable à une hausse des recettes fiscales hors des rentes pétrolières, les autorités fiscales ont eu beaucoup de difficultés à y parvenir.

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