plant Thomas Trutschel | getty images

Jak zajistit pokračující vzestup Afriky

LAGOS – Africkému vzestupu hrozí škobrtnutí. Po letech, během nichž ekonomika kontinentu rostla průměrným ročním tempem ve výši 5 %, vzniká riziko, že nejistota, stlačené ceny komodit a rozechvělé externí poměry podkopou desítky let tolik potřebného pokroku. Zajistit bohatství a prosperitu obyvatel kontinentu nebude snadné, ale nabízí se mnohé, co tvůrci politik mohou udělat, aby Afriku navedli zpět na vzestupnou trajektorii.

V prvé řadě tvůrci politik musí zabezpečit financování nezbytné k uskutečňování udržitelného rozvoje v nejistém globálním prostředí. Světová banka odhaduje, že Afrika bude jen na financování infrastruktury potřebovat nejméně 93 miliard dolarů ročně. Udržitelná infrastruktura přátelská ke klimatu bude stát ještě víc. Dokud však bude přetrvávat slabý globální růst, Afričané se nemohou spolehnout, že vyspělé země v úplnosti dodrží závazky, jejichž smyslem je přispět k dosažení Cílů udržitelného rozvoje.

Afrika si musí bezodkladně vytvořit vlastní zdroje. Začít je třeba bezmála zdvojnásobením příjmů z daní. Ty napříč subsaharskou Afrikou tvoří necelou pětinu HDP, oproti více než třetině v zemích OECD. V této oblasti je tedy velký prostor pro zlepšení. Například Ghana v letech 1990 až 2004 reformovala svou daňovou soustavu a zvýšila příjmy z 11 % na 22 % HDP. Je třeba přiznat, že takový pokrok je náročný; v Nigérii jsme rozpoznali příležitost ke zvýšení neropných příjmů z daní, ale dalo nám hodně práce jí využít.

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