plant Thomas Trutschel | getty images

确保非洲继续崛起

拉各斯—非洲的崛起有夭折的危险。在经历了多年年均5%的经济增长后,全球不确定性、大宗商品价格低迷以及不利的外部条件有可能破坏几十年来急需的进步。确保非洲居民的财富和福祉绝非易事;但决策者可以想很多办法帮助非洲重回向上轨迹

首先也是最重要的是,决策者必须确保所需要的资金在不确定的全球环境中追求可持续发展。世界银行估计,光是基础设施资金,非洲每年就至少需要930亿美元。气候友好型可持续基础设施的成本更高。但是,只要全球增长持续低迷,非洲人就无法指望发达国家充分兑现它们帮助实现可持续发展目标的承诺。

非洲必须迅速开发其自身的资源,第一步是将税收收入提高近一倍。在整个撒哈拉以南非洲,税收收入还不到GDP的五分之一,而经合组织国家这一比例高达三分之一以上。这意味着还有巨大的改善空间。比如,从1999年到2004年,加纳改革了其税收制度,税收收入占GDP之比从11%增加到22% 。诚然,取得这样的进步是困难的;在尼日利亚,我们也看到了提高非石油税收收入的机会,但难以抓住它。

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