water pump africa Issouf Sanogo/AFP/Getty Images

Les enjeux de l'Afrique dans le Brexit

OXFORD – Alors que la Grande-Bretagne se concentre sur ses prochaines relations avec l'Union européenne une fois qu'elle sera sortie du bloc au cours de l'année 2019, le reste du monde fourbit déjà ses armes pour l'ère post-Brexit. Pour de nombreux pays africains en particulier, la préparation de l'inévitable divorce n'est pas seulement prudente : elle peut être une question de nécessité économique.

De nombreux analystes suivent avec obsession l'empreinte économique de la Chine en Afrique (en 2015, on comptait près de 2 650 projets de développement chinois en cours sur le continent). Mais le Royaume-Uni est devenu un partenaire d'investissement beaucoup plus engagé sur le continent au fil des années. Fin 2014, l'investissement étranger direct en Afrique était de 42,5 milliards de livres sterling (54,1 milliards de dollars), soit plus du double des 20,8 milliards de livres sterling que les intérêts britanniques investis en 2005. L'IED britannique a été canalisé dans une large mesure vers le secteur des télécommunications et vers celui des services financiers, mais l'aide au développement et les projets d'infrastructure ont également constitué un centre d'intérêt.

Cette tendance à la hausse est cependant susceptible de s'inverser si les négociations du Brexit avec l'Union européenne conduisent à une érosion de la confiance dans le marché britannique. Car la Grande-Bretagne est obligée de consolider sa propre économie et de rechercher des opportunités à l'étranger qui pourraient paraître moins appropriées.

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