Los intereses de África en el debate sobre el cambio climático

MAPUTO, MOZAMBIQUE – En toda África va creciendo la preocupación, que nosotras tres compartimos, de que el continente está quedando marginado de los debates más importantes con miras a la cumbre sobre cambio climático COP15 que se llevará a cabo este mes en Copenhague. Mientras que la atención se ha centrado en el impacto de la mitigación del cambio climático en los países desarrollados, las necesidades urgentes de adaptación de los países más pobres del mundo frente a una posible catástrofe han sido ignoradas en gran medida, al menos en términos de acciones concretas.

Tal vez el mundo necesita recordar que África es el continente que menos contribuye al cambio climático, pero ahora debe vivir con sus consecuencias más graves. Las señales no están presagiando nada bueno. Los patrones del clima están cambiando; la lluvia en ciertas áreas ha estado faltando, y grandes franjas del continente han estado sufriendo una sequía inusitadamente severa.

La posición geográfica de África, sus recursos hídricos sensibles, sus métodos de agricultura no sustentable y la explotación de empresas extranjeras y privadas la han hecho más vulnerable. La deforestación para obtener madera y energía precipita la erosión y reducen la fertilidad de los suelos. Los conflictos están aumentando a medida que las comunidades compiten por recursos escasos. En efecto, las disputas por tierras de agricultura y pastoreo fueron parte de las causas de los conflictos en Darfur, Somalia y Costa de Marfil.

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