Ambizioni monetarie malriposte in Africa

DAKAR – L’Africa subsahariana si è fatta prendere dalla mania di una moneta unica. I gruppi regionali dei paesi dell’Africa orientale, meridionale e occidentale hanno tutti come priorità la creazione di un’unione monetaria. Ma non ne abbiamo già sentito parlare prima in Africa?

A dire il vero, l’odierno entusiasmo per l’unione monetaria ignora gli scarsi risultati dei precedenti tentativi fatti sul continente per raggiungere questo obiettivo con mezzi pacifici. Una valuta comune richiede politiche monetarie e fiscali unificate e centralizzate. Tutto questo necessita, però, di un’integrazione politica, che, come hanno dimostrato i problemi dell’euro quest’anno, è difficile da far digerire agli stati nazionali.

Prima dell’avvento dell’euro nella scena finanziaria internazionale nel 1999, i soli esempi di paesi con una valuta comune erano l’Africa francofona neo-coloniale e i precedenti del diciannovesimo secolo come l’unione monetaria dell’America latina e quella della Scandinavia. La creazione del franco CFA, che dà alla Francia il controllo del 65% delle riserve di valute estere dei paesi CFA, ha combinato la convertibilità valutaria con una parità di cambio seriamente sopravvalutata – ancorata inizialmente al franco francese e ora all’euro – nonché con barriere commerciali. Questo ha solamente portato a un deficit strutturale, una vasta fuga di capitali, e, nel 1994, a una svalutazione del 100%.

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