Afrikas unangebrachte Währungsambitionen

DAKAR – Der Währungsunionswahn hat Subsahara-Afrika fest im Griff. Für regionale Ländergruppen in Ost-, Süd- und Westafrika ist die Idee, eine Währungsunion zu gründen, ein vorrangiges Ziel. Aber haben wir das alles in Afrika nicht schon einmal gehört?

Tatsächlich wird beim heutigen Enthusiasmus für Währungsunionen ignoriert, wie schlecht vorherige Versuche, sie mit friedlichen Mitteln herzustellen, auf dem Kontinent abgeschnitten haben. Eine Gemeinschaftswährung erfordert eine vereinheitlichte und zentral vereinbarte Geld- und Finanzpolitik. Doch ist dafür politische Integration notwendig, die – wie die Probleme des Euros in diesem Jahr gezeigt haben – unter Nationalstaaten schwer zu erreichen ist.

Bevor der Euro 1999 die internationale Finanzbühne betrat, waren die einzigen Beispiele für Länder mit Gemeinschaftswährungen das neokolonialistische französischsprachige Afrika und Vorläufer aus dem neunzehnten Jahrhundert, wie die lateinamerikanische oder die skandinavische Währungsunion. Die Schaffung des CFA-Franc, durch den Frankreich 65 % der Devisenreserven der CFA-Länder kontrolliert, hat Währungskonvertibilität mit einem maßlos überbewertetem Umrechnungskurs – zunächst gekoppelt an den französischen Franc und jetzt an den Euro – und mit Handelsbarrieren verbunden. Dies hatte lediglich strukturelle Defizite, eine enorme Kapitalflucht und 1994 eine 100-prozentige Abwertung zur Folge.

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