El otro oro negro de África

LAGOS – Pocos servicios de infraestructura en el mundo desarrollado se dan tanto por hecho como la electricidad. Para los consumidores de los países industrializados, el suministro ininterrumpido de electricidad es un hecho. No sucede así en África, que experimenta los mayores déficit de energía del mundo y donde sólo dos de cada diez personas tienen acceso a la electricidad.

Según el más reciente informe sobre las “Perspectivas económicas regionales del África Subsahariana”, del FMI, tan sólo en 2007, casi dos terceras partes de los países de la región atravesaron crisis severas de energía marcadas por apagones prolongados y frecuentes.

En África no faltan plantas hidroeléctricas para generar energía. Sin embargo, muchas de ellas no pueden responder al rápido crecimiento de la población y los aumentos resultantes en la demanda. Además, debido a las sequías constantes, su producción se reduce significativamente y muchas quedan reducidas a simples adornos del paisaje. El crecimiento de la población en países como Nigeria y Ghana supone una mayor extracción de recursos hídricos para generar energía. La rápida expansión de las actividades agrícolas exige cada vez más agua en todo el continente.

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