Afrikas hartes schwarzes Gold

LAGOS: Es gibt in der entwickelten Welt wohl nur wenige Dienstleistungen, die derart als selbstverständlich erachtet werden wie elektrischer Strom. Die Verbraucher in den Industrieländern betrachten eine Stromversorgung ohne Unterbrechungen einfach als Gegebenheit. Anders in großen Teilen Afrikas, das weltweit einige der größten Energiedefizite aufweist und wo nur zwei von zehn Menschen Zugang zu elektrischem Strom haben.

Laut dem jüngst erschienenen Regional Economic Outlook for Sub-Saharan Africa des Internationalen Währungsfonds erlebten allein 2007 fast zwei Drittel der Länder der Region akute, durch häufige und lang andauernde Stromausfälle gekennzeichnete Energiekrisen.

Es herrscht in Afrika kein Mangel an Wasserkraftwerken zur Stromgewinnung. Viele dieser Anlagen jedoch sind nicht im Stande, mit dem rapiden Bevölkerungswachstum und damit einhergehenden Steigerungen der Nachfrage Schritt zu halten. Darüber hinaus sind sie häufigen Dürren ausgesetzt, was ihre Produktion deutlich verringert und viele zu wenig mehr als dekorativen Infrastruktur-Wahrzeichen macht. Wachsende Bevölkerungen in Ländern wie Nigeria und Ghana setzen für die Zukunft eine zunehmende Wasserentnahme zur Stromgewinnung voraus. Die rasche Ausweitung landwirtschaftlicher Aktivitäten erfordert überall auf dem Kontinent immer mehr Wasser.

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