L’Afrique et son économie divisée

DAKAR – La crise économique mondiale et les secousses ressenties sur les marchés financiers obèrent le budget des pays d’Afrique. A l’exception du Ghana, et d’une poignée d’autres états, le bilan fiscal de la plupart des pays de ce continent s’est détérioré en 2009. Cependant, grâce à une gestion avisée de leurs finances publiques durant les phases de croissance solide qui ont précédé, nombre de pays africains tiennent bon aujourd’hui, affichant une meilleure forme fiscale que lors de crises passées.

En 2009, le PIB global de l’Afrique s’est accru d’environ 1,6 % – chiffre inférieur à la croissance de 5,7 % des années 2002-2008, mais chiffre positif. Qui plus est, en dépit des obstacles générés par la crise, plusieurs pays continuent de mettre en ouvre des réformes afin d’améliorer le climat des affaires et de l’investissement sur le long terme. Comme le commerce international et la production industrielle sont désormais en voie de guérison, les économies sub-sahariennes ont tout ce qu’il faut pour entamer une croissance solide, fonction de la demande et du prix du pétrole et d’autres minéraux à la hausse et de la reprise générale de l’activité économique.

Bien sûr, certains points faibles pèsent toujours sur les bienfaits durement gagnés de cette amélioration sociale et économique (catastrophes climatiques, conflits armés ou agitation politique). Mais c’est la nature ambivalente de son économie et de sa finance qui constitue le déséquilibre structurel le plus insurmontable de l’Afrique. Car, à la vérité, deux Afrique sont en train d’émerger : l’une dotée d’une économie moderne, l’autre basée sur une gestion de trésorerie.

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