vaccines Neil Thomas/Getty Images

Essai de vaccination en Afrique

BOSTON En février à Addis-Abeba, les ministres africains de la santé ont signé une déclaration largement saluée, pour leur engagement à maintenir la vaccination à l'avant-garde des efforts visant à sauver les enfants du continent de la mort et de la maladie. Tenir cet engagement ne sera pas chose aisée. La vaccination n'est pas seulement un problème de santé : c'est également un défi économique.

Les arguments en faveur de la vaccination sont solides. On estime globalement qu'entre 2 et 3 millions cas de mortalité infantile et 600 000 décès d'adultes sont évités chaque année grâce à la vaccination. En outre, la vaccination est considérée comme l'une des interventions de santé publique les plus rentables pour réduire la morbidité, la mortalité infantile et le handicap chez l'enfant. Une étude récente estime que chaque dollar dépensé dans la vaccination économisera 16 dollars dans la prévention des maladies. Compte tenu de la valeur que les individus accordent à une vie plus longue et à une meilleure santé, le retour net sur investissements en matière de vaccination grimpe aux alentours de 44 fois son coût. Et le retour net excède les coûts de tous les vaccins.

D'importants progrès ont été réalisés. En 2014, 86% des enfants ont été vaccinés contre la diphtérie, le tétanos et la coqueluche, contre moins de 5% en 1974. Et des progrès extraordinaires ont été réalisés dans le nombre et les catégories de vaccins disponibles.

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