solar power africa Isaac Kasamani/AFP/Getty Images

Fournir l’énergie nécessaire à la transformation de l’Afrique

LE CAP/LAGOS – L’Afrique est promise à un brillant avenir. La productivité et la croissance vont augmenter, car les économies africaines vont continuer de renforcer les services et le secteur manufacturier, poursuivre leur production de matières premières, et dégager rapidement des profits dans l’agriculture et l’industrie légère.

Mais le succès des pays d’Afrique requiert qu’ils produisent et mettent en place des énergies durables pour répondre à l’accroissement de la demande. Dans les trente-cinq prochaines années, la population africaine va continuer d’augmenter, et l’on prévoit que 800 millions de personnes sur l’ensemble du continent se déplaceront vers les villes. Or les Africains sont déjà considérablement exposés aux effets négatifs du changement climatique, alors même qu’ils ne sont pas responsables à eux tous de 4% des émissions totales de gaz à effet de serre.

Les zones urbaines doivent réduire leurs atteintes à l’environnement en développant des systèmes énergétiques pauvres en carbone et des transports publics électriques mais également en encourageant les initiatives d’économie d’énergie et l’usage de combustibles plus propres pour la cuisson des aliments. Les zones rurales peuvent créer, quant à elles, de nouvelles opportunités, qui réduiront l’exode vers les villes, en généralisant la production d’énergie renouvelable et l’accès à celle-ci.

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