african infrastructure Mimi Mollica/Getty Images

«Большие облигации» для Африки

ЛАГОС – Страны Африки южнее Сахары достигли критически важного рубежа. Из-за краха сырьевых цен и экономического торможения в Китае темпы роста экономики региона снизились до 3,4% в 2015 году. Это почти на 50% ниже среднего уровня, наблюдавшегося в течение последних 15 лет. По оценкам, в 2016 году темпы роста экономики оказались даже ниже, чем темпы прироста населения, равные примерно 2%, а это означает, что начал снижаться подушевой ВВП.

Устойчивый экономический рост крайне важен для поддержания прогресса в деле снижения уровня нищеты, младенческой смертности, заболеваемости и недостатка продовольствия. И это единственный метод создания достаточного количества хороших рабочих мест для молодого населения Африки, которое растёт самыми быстрыми темпами на планете. Как отметил на недавней пресс-конференции министр экономического сотрудничества и развития Герд Мюллер, «если молодёжь Африки не сможет найти работу или будущее в собственных странах, тогда в Европу направятся не сотни тысяч, а миллионы».

Одним из способов поддержания темпов роста экономики и создания рабочих мест могло бы стать сотрудничество в сфере планирования и реализации масштабных инвестиций в африканскую инфраструктуру. При этом особенно важна государственная инфраструктура. Сюда относятся шоссе, мосты и железные дороги, связывающие сельских производителей в странах, которые не имеют выхода к морю, с городскими потребителями в Африке и с зарубежными рынками; инфраструктура общественного транспорта и интернета, которая помогает повысить коммерческую активность; линии электропередач, объединяющие электростанции и сети, которые финансируются частным капиталом.

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